Monday, March 30, 2020

Arguements against cloning essays

Arguements against cloning essays In 1997 the world was introduced to a six month old lamb named Dolly, the first successfully cloned mammal, putting everyone around the world into shock. The time has come where our technology in science and medicine have advanced so much that human cloning has left science fiction and has now progressed into science. A high percent of people feel that there could be nothing good we could get out of cloning human beings and nothing scientifically or medically important would be lost by banning colonal reproduction (Kass). According to a poll taken by CCN of 1,005 adults in 1997, 69% said they are afraid of the possibility to clone humans, 89% feel it is morally unacceptable, and 74% believe human cloning is against Gods will (Robinson). There are, however, those who support the cloning of humans. A select amount of scientist feel that research cloning will lead to cures and treatments for the sick and cloning would also allow people to produce or raise a child to whom they are b iologically connected (Wachbroit). Although these are a few hopes of creating a human clone, such processes should be banned not only because they are extremely risky for the clones and the women who would birth them, but it would also diminish our world that is valued for individuality, despite the feelings of cloning supporters on the contrary. Although many scientists who support cloning do so in good intentions to help create cures for those who have diseases that we do not have treatments for, there are other ways of doing so without cloning. It would almost be impossible to restrict some forms of human cloning without banning it completely. The lives of humans are more valuable than to risk one for the benefit of another. Also, once research cloning is allowed and embryos become available, even the tightest regulations would not be able to prevent to birth of cloned babies (Robinson). Instead of using cloning to m...

Saturday, March 7, 2020

None Example

None Example None – Coursework Example Price Ceiling January 11, Price Ceiling Price ceiling is implemented in a bid to avoid consumer exploitation by ensuring that the basic commodities are available at affordable prices. In the oil industry, the prices have been sky rocketing thus adversely affecting the economy. This is mainly because it constitutes a significant percentage of energy sources. In the implementation of price control, consideration on the cause of rise in fuel prices should be considered. In some instances, the main cause of the rise in the prices is the shortage in supply. Under such circumstances, price ceiling is not a solution. As such, increasing production and use of other alternative sources of energy could be the ultimate solution (Whittington & Delaney, 2011). The forces of demand and supply determine the equilibrium point. As such if the price ceiling is above the equilibrium price, then it has no effect on the economy. When price ceiling is below the equilibrium price, adverse consequences such as supply shortage due to increased demand and reduced production as a larger group of the population will be able to purchase the commodity (McEachern, 2011). Moreover lowering of quality in a bid to reduce production cost, discrimination, and the increased use of black market is evident (Arnold, 2010). Due to the shortage, queuing for the product is evident with the elderly and physically challenged being disadvantaged. This is usually addressed through rationing. When operating in the black market, the customers are not protected and therefore they could encounter violence or even theft (Mankiw, 2011). Thus, when the gasoline prices rises above $4 and the government places a price ceiling, consideration is necessary as if implemented for long could have adverse effects on the economyReferencesArnold, R. A. (2010). Microeconomics. Stamford, Connecticut, USA: Cengage Learning. Mankiw, N. G. (2011). Principles of Microeconomics. Stamford, Connecticut, USA: Cengage Learning.McEacher n, W. A. (2011). Macroeconomics. Stamford, Connecticut, USA: Cengage Learning.Whittington, O. R. & Delaney, P. R. (2011). Wiley CPA Examination Review, Outlines and Study Guides. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. None Example None – Essay Example Contrast between the approach employed by Mahathir towards the indigenous business people in Malaysia with the one taken by Suharto in Indonesia. Thepolitical regime in Malaysia is composed of a multi-party system. Its political process is "consociationalism" meaning, the interests of the community are resolved within the grand coalition framework. Over the recent years, there has been increased media coverage in politics making it transparent to the citizens. Malaysia is a multi-cultural nation whose population comprises of three main groups namely ethnic Indian, ethnic Chinese and Bumiputera. Of the three groups, the Bumiputera are the indigenous people. During the period of British rule in Malaysia, the ethnic Chinese grew to be the dominant ethnic group in the Malaysia’s business sector. This brought tension between them and the Bumiputera after independence. This led to the adoption of a new economic policy in an attempt to equalize power between the Chinese minorities who were dominant in business with the Bumiputeras. This economic policy was instituted by Mahathir bin Mohamed, Malaysia’s Prime Minister in 1981 (Gomez and Jomo 1997). Gomez and Jomo (1997) explain that the new business policy was meant to equalize business power between the Bumiputera, and the ethnic Chinese. Through this policy, Mahathir gave preferences to Bumiputera, the indigenous Malaysian over the ethnic Chinese. For example, it required that companies which exceeded a certain size should have a Bumiputera partner. Though the policy did not last long, it brought long lasting harmonious existence in the business sector between the two groups. In the other hand, ethnic Chinese comprise just a small percentage of the Indonesian population. Despite this, they also control a bigger share of the wealth of the nation (Victor 1992). This greatly disadvantaged the indigenous Indonesian business people given the existing economic policies that did not fight for them. For example, during the time of the reign of Suharto, he favored the economic aspects of Chinese. Suharto’s favor towards the economic aspects of the Chinese caused the Chinese business community to be advantaged over the indigenous business community for a long time. As a result of this, the indigenous people held sentiments towards this (BBC News). We can therefore say that Suharto failed to accord equal opportunities for the indigenous business as compared to Malaysia’s Mahathir. This situation led to hatred towards the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia. Recently, there has been violence in Indonesia which target the ethnic Chinese population. Conclusion Mahathir towards the indigenous business people in Malaysia entailed the equalization of business power between the indigenous Bumiputeras and the ethnic Chinese. Contrastingly, Suharto’s approach to did not offer such equal opportunities for business to the indigenous business people. As a result of the two contrasting approaches, Malaysia has become an example of interethnic harmony during the period of economic crisis opposed to Indonesia where thousands of ethnic were massacred during the 1997, anti-Chinese riots. Such hatred emerges from the sentiments held by the people towards being disadvantaged economically in their own country. References BBC News (21st May, 1998). The role of ethnic Chinese. Online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/indonesia/your_comments_so_far/93837.stm. Viewed on 25th May, 2011. Gomez Edmund and Jomo, K. (1997). Malaysias Political Economy: Politics, Patronage, and Profits. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. Victor David (1992). International Business Communication. HarperCollins. New York. Discussion questions 1. What motivated Suharto to have a discriminative approach to the indigenous business people? Chinese are naturally business people and their involvement in Indonesian business was likely to drive the country’s economy to greater heights. The Chinese were more able in terms of capital which encouraged the seting up of private businesses to boost the economy. Suharto had married a Chinese woman 2. Did Suharto’s approach to the indigenous business people disadvantage them alone the whole economy? It led to increased food prices It lowered employment rate as Chinese firms imported cheap labor from china Led to a substantial net flow of profits as Chinese businesses channeled profits to their home country. None Example None – Coursework Example Buy one, get one free Buy one; get one free is a sales promotion strategy usually adopted by marketers to attract s. They know the psychologyof the consumers very well and try to exploit it with help of ads like these. It should be noted that no non-charitable business groups can offer anything free to the customers. If they offer something free, definitely that price of the free product will be included in the price of actual product purchased. It is evident that a business group cannot survive for longer periods if they keep on providing free gifts to its customers. The prices of products offered on â€Å"buy one get one free† basis often end up in buying two products at the regular price. For example, if the seller offers you a product for $ 500 on buy one get one free basis, the actual price of the single product could be $ 250 only. In other words, â€Å"the markets have priced the free item into the price of the first item† (Lu) Consumers may not aware of it and t hey will be trapped by the marketers. In normal cases, it is not necessary for the governments to regulate promotions like these since business groups have the right to publish eye catching advertisements to attract customers. However, it is the duty of the governments to warn the people about the baselessness of such advertisements. It should be noted that tobacco companies need to display the statutory warning against smoking on all advertisements. Governments can think in terms of enforcing such measures on buy one get one free ads also in order to warn the people about the tricks involved in such ads. To conclude, buy one get one free is a fraudulent marketing activity performed by business people to attract customers and it should be regulated with the help of laws. Works citedLu Xin. â€Å"Why "Buy One Get One Free" Is Usually A Bad Deal†. 2008. Web 05 January 2012.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

1.Internet nutrition resources.2.entomophagy (insect eating) Essay

1.Internet nutrition resources.2.entomophagy (insect eating) - Essay Example Aside from the subjects stated above, the site also includes Emergency Preparedness and Management, Report an illness or file a product complaint and check restaurant inspection scores that will increases awareness of its audience and encourages its audience to give feedback on a particular product. But this site lacks online forums and has limited search filters for audience search bar: only for consumers, unlike the other sites which offers more options such as parents, children, senior, caregivers and teachers. The Ohio State University released a fact sheet entitled â€Å"Insects as Human Food – Microlivestocks,† the promotion of edible insects, foodstuff and its nutritional value (osu.edu). A study showed that insects like grasshoppers, ants, beetles, and mole crickets are rich in protein and low in cholesterol and fat. On the other hand, termites, caterpillars and weevils contain iron, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Mexican restaurants served fried grasshoppers, chocolate covered ants and tortillas with red and white agave worms. For Columbia, they ground ants as spread on breads, while in Africa some insects are eaten raw or baked. Other countries such as, Philippines and United States have it fried, broiled or sautà ©ed with vegetables. The following recipes were also famous in the United States: chocolate chirpie chip cookies made from dry-roasted crickets, bug blox made from dry-roasted leafhoppers, rootworm beetle dip made from dry-roasted rootworm beetles and banana worm bread made from dry-roasted armyworms. Insects contain essential amino acids, so it can be a source of protein for nutrition. But there are also insects that are toxic and may create allergies, thus, some Americans chose not to eat insects. In addition, the US Food and Drug Administration is very strict on its policy, e.g. limiting insects and their parts in food crops, thus, giving a notion that

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Analysis of Normal Accidents as described by Richard Bookstaber Essay

Analysis of Normal Accidents as described by Richard Bookstaber - Essay Example The best that an investor may get out of a bad investment is cost aversion. In the absence of this, the investor may be very certain that he or she would be running at a loss. In some cases, the choice of investment is not necessarily what constitutes a bad investment for an investor. Rather, it is the approach used in investing. So an investor may be selecting the best form of investment but he or she may be approaching the investment wrongly. This is exactly the point outlined by Bookstaber in his book, A Demon of our own. The writer is very concerned about approaches that are taken by investors because, in his opinion, a series of tightly coupled processes may only lead to normal accidents, which not as the name suggests, may be very disastrous. Normal Accidents Explained In his writing, Bookstaber describes normal accidents in relation to financial forces. The writer first uses scenarios of other forms of forces to explain his arguments of normal forces. The writer notes that â⠂¬Å"if you put in an extra warning light or sensor on a nuclear reactor or an aeroplane, that's one more thing that could fail, causing confusion and a disastrous cascade of cause and effect† (Fitch, 2009). In the words of Fitch (2009), the situation causes â€Å"investors to bet on stocks, bonds and interest rates, often with a large degree of leverage.† The resulting consequence for such decisions is that there have been derivatives that have led to high levels of complexities in the financial system and this has led to normal accidents (Bookstaber, 2008, pg. 143). The concept of normal accidents as introduced by Bookstaber could, therefore, be related to the everyday concept of putting all of a person’s eggs in one basket. It is known that the resulting effect of such an action is that once the basket breaks the fellow losses all the eggs. In the financial sector, once investors become overconfident in their investment and channel all their funds to a single domain, the resulting effect is tight coupling and complexity Indeed, â€Å"the combination of tight coupling and complexity is a formula for normal accident† – especially when the structure of the fin ancial system cannot handle the complexity. (Bookstaber, 2008, pg. 256). Tightly Coupled Processes in the Financial Sector In page 256, introduces a concept of the structure of the system when he says that normal accidents are â€Å"accidents that are all but evitable as a result of the structure of the system.† The idea that this piece of information creates is that normal accidents are actually often influenced by the prevailing financial structures and system. Indeed, it is when the financial sector gets tightly coupled that investment decisions by investors may result in normal accidents.  

Monday, January 27, 2020

Catcher In Rye: Obsession On Childhood

Catcher In Rye: Obsession On Childhood In the novel The in the Rye, J.D. Salinger creates a fictional character, Holden, who refuses to grow up and preserve his innocence because he is obsessed on childhood. Holden chooses to be stuck between the innocent world of childhood and the complex world of adulthood. For instance, Holden detailed his two siblings, Allie and Phoebe, as if he idolizes them because of their youth. Throughout the novel, Holden struggles in his life because he cant accept the responsibilities and consequences tied to adulthood. Holden Caulfield is a 16-year old boy who refuses to accept the responsibilities of an adult. So, Holden refuses to grow up and act matured. For example, in the beginning of the novel the readers were informed about Holdens expulsion from Pencey Prep School. However, Holden is more afraid of what his parents reaction will be and afraid of facing the consequences of his expulsion. So, he refuses to go home and confront his parents. He says, I didnt want to go home or anything till they got it and thoroughly digested it and all (51). This shows the immature side of Holden. Instead of explaining to his family why he flunked school, he chooses not to because he thought that his mother will be hysterical to him, My mother gets very hysterical (51). Asides from being immature, Holden is also afraid of talking to people close to him because he is afraid of something inappropriate theyll say about him. This explains his lack of interaction with Jane Gallagher, the girl Holden spent with one summer, the only reason why I didnt do it [calling Jane] was because I wasnt in the mood (63). His lack of interaction with the people he knew makes him interact with the people he doesnt know. Like when he talked to a cab driver about the ducks in the lagoon and ask where they go during winter, You know those ducks in that lagoon right near Central Park South? (60). Even though its a nonsense question, he still asked the driver about the ducks. He thinks that the cab driver, or any random people, would not judge him which gives him the courage to talk randomly and to lie to random people. Holden lies most of the time to get someones attention. This is one way Holden shows transition towards adulthood. Even if Holden chooses to stay in the world of innocence, his thoughts and actions show some transition to adulthood. For example in chapter 13 when the elevator boy offers Holden a prostitute girl, he says yes and acts like he had slept with someone else before. However he says that he is still a virgin , If you want to know the truth, Im a virgin (92), and when he comes pretty close to doing it with a girl and she says stop he stops, she keeps telling you to stop, The problem with me is, I stop (92). This shows a transition of Holdens sexual desire; however, he struggles dealing with it. Another example of Holden is stuck between the childhood and adulthood world is when he is in the lavender room. When he sees the three ladies at the next table, he gives them an old eye a little bit (69). When Holden finally meet them, he told them that he just saw Gary Cooper, the movie star, on the other side of the floor (74). His actions show that he is trying to impress the three ladies like an adult man by giving them old eye glances and impressing them by lying. At the end of the chapter, after hanging out with the three girls, they left Holden with the bill to pay, I think they shouldve at least offered to pay for the drinks they had before I joined them (75). Due to his innocence and being a trying hard social climber, he ends up being the stupid one and easy to trick with. Another example is Holdens concern towards the ducks in the lagoon. He says I was thinking about the lagoon in Central Park, down near Central Park South. I was wondering if it would be frozen over when I got home, and if it was, where did the ducks go. I was wondering where the ducks went when the lagoon got all icy and frozen over. I wondered of some guy came in a truck and took them to a zoo or something. Or if they just flew away (13). The ducks symbolizes Holden. He is wondering where hes going to go in his life especially when things get icy and frozen. He is wondering if there will be some one to guide him or if he will just fly away. The lagoon, on the other hand, symbolizes his life. In Chapter 20, when he finds the lagoon he says it was pretty frozen and partly not frozen (154). The transition of lake from frozen to not frozen is like Holdens transition from childhood to adulthood. The frozen part shows that Holden hates changes. For instance, when Holden is in the Museum of Natural History he says that he likes the museum because it never changes, the only thing that change is you, Nobodyd be different. The only thing that would be different would be you (121). Just like his obsession, he doesnt want to change and stays as a child to preserve his innocence. He sees his siblings as his inspiration for his obsession. Throughout the novel, Holden always describes his sibling as nice, responsible, smart children. This gives the reader another reason of Holdens obsession of preserving his innocence. He sees innocence through his siblings. In chapter 5, Holden describes Allie, his dead little brother, as fifty times as intelligent (38) than him. He exaggerates that Allies is so smart. In chapter 10, Holden describes Phoebe as a little kid so pretty and smart (67). He also convinces the readers that the readers would like her (67). This shows a reason why he wanted to stay like a child is to be like by everyone. Holden convinces the reader that both of his siblings are smart and everyone likes them. In Chapter 23, Holdens mother gave Phoebe a goodnight kiss and said goodnight to her. All of a sudden, Holden started to cry, Then, all of a sudden, I started to cry (179). This gives the readers an idea that one reason why he wanted to preserve innocence is he wanted to feel to be love and to feel the car e of his love ones especially from his mother that he never felt before. He idolizes Allie and Phoebe because his parents give them so much attention, love and care. For Allie, they always visit his grave, my parents go out quite frequently and stick a bunch of flowers on old Allies grave (155), and because Holden have a lousy childhood (1), he his jealous of his siblings because they get the attention, care, and love from their parents that hes been longing for so long. However, his treatment towards his siblings, and children, doesnt influence his jealousy. In fact, he wanted to be the catcher in the rye to protect them from adulthood. Due to Holdens obsession in preserving innocence, Holden chooses to be the catcher in the rye (173). He wanted to catch the children, who are playing in a field of rye, from falling off the cliff. The field of rye symbolizes the childhood world, a world that is full of children playing, while the cliff symbolizes adulthood. Holden doesnt want the children to struggle in life, like he is dealing with. He wanted children to stay children and preserve their innocence because he doesnt want them to fall in the corrupted and complicated world of adulthood. In chapter 25, Holden tries to erase the Fuck you word written in the wall of an elementary school, but I rubbed it out anyway, though. (201). Holden tries to protect the children from reading the swear word that could poison their mind. The red hunting hat is another symbolism of innocence in the novel. Holden always wear the red hunting hat to protect himself from the hunter, the society. He gave the hunting hat to Phoebe, she took of f my red hunting hat the one I gave her (207), to protect her from the society. He wanted Phoebe to have her innocence as long as she needed it. Erasing the swear on the wall and protecting Phoebe from the society are Holdens ways of protecting the children from jumping off the cliff. However, at the end of the novel, Holden learns to let go of his obsession. When Holden and Phoebe visit the zoo, they see a carrousel which Holden usually ride when he was younger. But this time Holden decided not ride the carrousel, instead, he decided to seat down and watch Phoebe ride the carrousel, I went over and sat down on this bench, and she went and got on the carrousel (221). This shows that finally Holden let go of his childish desire of preserving the innocence and being a child as long as he could be. Holden also stops his ambition of being the catcher in the rye when he sees the children reaching out for the gold ring in the carrousel. He says if they want to grab for the gold ring, you have to let them do it, and not say anything. If they fall off, that fall off (211). This shows that Holden finally given up from saving the kids from falling to adulthood. The gold ring symbolizes adulthood, which Holden didnt do anything to stop the children from reaching it. In the novel The Catcher in the Rye, Holden is obsessed in preserving his innocence. Holden cannot accept the responsibilities and consequences associated with adulthood. He tries to run away from the people he knew and focuses his attentions to the people he did not know. Holden is stuck between the world of innocence and the world of adulthood. Without even noticing it, he tries to act and think like an adult. Holden is also jealous of his two little siblings because they get most of the attention, care, and love of their parents that he has never felt before. He wanted to preserve his innocence to feel the love from his parents that he has been longing for so long. Due to his obsession of preserving his innocence, he wishes to be the catcher in the rye to protect the children from falling off the cliff. He finds the adult world corrupted and poisonous. However, in the end of the novel, Holden finally let go of his obsession and decided to act as an adult. Even though he struggles in his life and finds adulthood complicates, corrupted, and poisonous he decided to come out of his box to evolve, explore, and experience what the world could offer.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Corruption in Colombia Essay

There has been a four-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government groups, such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) who are funded by the drug trade, has escalated over the years. Since about 2002 the violence has decreased a slit amount because of the lack of the military and popular support necessary to overthrow the government. However these groups of insurgents have continued to attack civilians. Large areas around Columbia are under the revolutionary influence. By the end of 2006, more than 31,000 former governments’ officials had ceased to function as long as the formal organization the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC). When this occurred criminal groups arose and members included former government officials. The Colombia Government has made efforts to advance government control throughout the country. In order to understand how corruption is affecting Colombia, we must first examine concrete economical statistics. The Colombian Peso exchange rate depreciated 6. 64 percent against the US Dollar during the last 12 months. The Colombian Peso spot exchange rate specifies how much one currency, the USD, is currently worth in terms of the other, the COP. While the Colombian Peso spot exchange rate is quoted and exchanged in the same day, the Colombian Peso forward rate is quoted today but for delivery and payment on a specific future date. Colombian pesos (COP) per US dollar: 1,869. 9 (2010) 2,157. 6 (2009) 2,243. 6 (2008) 2,013. 8 (2007) 2,358. 6 (2006) According to the CIA World Factbook, Colombia is ranked 59th in exports and 54th in imports. In May of 2011 Colombia exports were worth 4704 Million USD and imports were worth 4931 Million USD. Their major exports are petroleum, coffee, coal, nickel, gold and, nontraditional exports. Their major imports are industrial and transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, and electricity. The total population in Colombia was last reported at 45. 9 million people in 2010 from 16. 0 million in 1960, changing 187 percent during the last 50 years. Colombia has 0. 67 percent of the world? s total population which means that one person in every 150 people on the planet is a resident of Colombia. The unemployment rate in Columbia from 2000 until 2010 averaged at 14. 7 percent. The highest percentage was in January of 2001 when it was 20. 99 percent. The lowest percentage was in November of 2007 when it was 8. 91 percent. Labor force is the number of people employed plus the number unemployed but seeking work. The non-labor force is those who are not looking for work, those who are institutionalized, and those serving in the military. According to the World Bank, the Colombia Gross Domestic Product is worth 288 billion dollars or 0. 46% of the world economy. Colombia’s average GDP was 60. 55 billion dollars and reached the highest dollars in December of 2010. Colombia is a free market economy with major commercial and investment ties to The United States. Transition from a highly regulated economy has been underway for more than 15 years. Colombia’s average annual economic growth rate was of over 5% from 2002 to 2007. The inflation rate in Colombia was last reported at 3. 3 percent in August of 2011. Inflation rate refers to a general rise in prices measured against a standard level of purchasing power. The most well-known measures of Inflation are the CPI which measures consumer prices, and the GDP deflator, which measures inflation in the whole of the domestic economy. Corruption’s negative impact on Colombian Foreign Direct Investment is reflected by the poor image of Colombian government by its citizens. The Colombian government, although less developed and more corrupt, is structured similarly to the United States’ government. However unstable it may be, it is a republic and consists of three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. Also like the United States, Colombia is dominated by two major political parties, the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party. Because of the natural radicalism of the two parties, two major civil wars have resulted from their existence, The Thousand Days War and La Violencia. The Thousand Days War is a prime example of how the corruption of the Colombian government has made Foreign Direct Investment a very difficult achievement for Colombia. The Thousand Days War was a civil war fought between the Conservative Party of Colombia and the Liberal Party of Colombia, sparked by corruption. In 1898, Conservative Party member Manuel Antonio Sanclement, was elected president of Colombia. This was very controversial because it was believed that significant election fraud had made this possible. As Sanclement was an adamant Liberal Party oppose, the Colombian Liberal Party waged war. The war, which lasted 4 years, claimed an estimated 100,000 lives. As devastating of a loss as 100,000 people is, the worst outcome of The Thousand Days War may be that it did little to resolve the extreme differences between the Liberal and Conservative Parties of Colombia. The Thousand Days War was soon followed by a second civil war more commonly known as La Violencia. La Violencia was also a war founded on corruption. It was sparked by the assassination of the Liberal Party leader Jorge Eliecer Gaitan. After the assassination in 1948, Conservative Party leader Laureano Gomez, was the uncontested elected president in 1950. Under Gomez’s power, there was an increased rate of violence, specifically by the liberals of Colombia who were very upset about Gomez’s rise to power. Gomez was overthrown by a military coup led by General Gustavo Rojas Pinilpla in 1953. However, Rojas proved to be just as corrupt his predecessor and was soon overthrown by the Colombian military, with the support of both the Conservative and Liberal parties. La Violencia, a time properly named after and extreme period of violence and conflict, lasted from 1946 to 1957. Within that timespan it claimed an estimated 300,000 Colombian lives. The following chart shows the number of Colombian citizens who are murdered per 100,000 people by year. What is more concerning than its high rates, is that it continued to increase even after La Violencia. These extreme rates of murder and frequent conflicts are heavily dependent on the poor image citizens have of the Colombian government. There is a lack of trust in the Colombian government. Historically, governmental corruption is common practice in Colombia, just as it is a frequent occurrence that violent rebellions and civil wars take place in order to transfer power between the two political parties. This poor government infrastructure and lack of control allows corruption to run wild in Colombia making it a very difficult place for Foreign Direct Investment. This poor image of government in Colombia did not see much improvement after La Violencia. Another violent problem emerged with narco-terrorism. Colombia has become notorious for its cocaine production. In 2008, Colombia was the sources of 50% of the world’s cocaine. It is an industry which is very frequently held out violently, leading to what is known as narco-terrorism. In 1990, three presidential candidates were killed by narco-terrorists. With the rise of drug trafficking in Colombia, it appears that narco-terrorists have more control than the Colombian government. Although Colombian government has always struggled with corruption, there have recently been many signs of improvement towards a better country for Foreign Direct Investment. Within the past decade, several laws have been passed to weaken drug cartels and strengthen governmental control. From 2002 to 2008 Colombia has seen a decrease in many historically struggling areas. Its homicide rate dropped 44%, its kidnapping rates dropped 88%, its terrorist attacks dropped 79% and its attacks on country’s infrastructure dropped 60%. These tremendous improvements show an increase in governmental authority in Colombia. If Colombia can continue to improve in these areas and demonstrate that its government can have more control over its people, without corruption, it will become a much better candidate for Foreign Direct Investment. In August 2010, President Santos, introduced a legislation that would distribute industry incomes to Columbians who have lost their land due to violence. He also is trying to make improvements through domestic security. Columbia is third largest exporter of oil to the United States. Foreign direct investment from 2008 to 2009 went from $10 billion to $7. 2 billion. Even though records show that it has dropped $2. 8 billion, in 2010 it began to recover their losses through the oil sector. Because of their financial crisis the economy didn’t grow significant amount till 2010 then it grew 4. %. Before that the growth was a low percentage. With the challenges that Colombia’s faces it requires major improvement to sustain economic expansion. The outrageous amount of corruption in Colombia is hindering its economy and stopping it from becoming a safe and stable country. Although it is one of the oldest democracies in Latin America, Colombia has some of the most corrupt elections. An estimated 130,000 candidates are running for election at the local, regional, and national levels. 10% of these candidates have proven criminal records. About a third of their senate is currently under investigation for parapolitics and many of which are already in jail. The corrupt election are stopping Colombia from having a stable government which is stopping foreign investors from taking the risk of putting money into Columbia, meaning less jobs and poorer quality of life for the average Colombian. In 2005 the parapolitics scandal was uncovered and left the Colombian senate in chaos. The Colombian senate seats 102, and with 51 senators now being investigated and 29 in jail, they are virtually paralyzed. As each senator is arrested, it delays the agenda for legislation even more. Paramilitary leaders have confessed to hundreds of thousands of crimes including murders, abductions, rapes, narcotics, and extortion. They have also confessed to backing many politicians in an attempt to be protected outside of the law. Many members of the former president of Colombia, President Alvaro Uribe’s party were arrested for parapolitics showing the world how unstable the Colombian government is. One of the arrested politicians includes the president’s cousin Mario Uribe who has had very close ties to the president both family-wise and politically. This influenced the United States greatly and in 2007 a package of military aid destined for Colombia from the United States was blocked in the U. S. senate because of fear of election corruption. Colombia depends on the U. S. greatly, as it is number 3 in the world for U. S. military aid. The aid is used to assist in fighting the drug war and without it; more violence and corruption will take place. Paramilitary has a huge effect on the elections conducted in Columbia. There are around 20,000 paramilitary fighters in the country all growing from their creation in the 1980’s. In 2010 armed groups killed over two dozen candidates running for election and at the same time they invested large sums of money to fund their own candidates’ campaigns. Along with bribing people to run for them, these armed groups will also pay the public for individual votes. This can be as much as $40 per person in some places. Other times they will also use sheer military force to intimidate the public into voting for them. Many of the jailed parapoliticians have others running in their place as puppets while they are still in jail. Caracol news agency reported that 18 of the candidates in 2010 were â€Å"political front men† for ex-senators. There was an increase in the amount of women running for election which usually is considered a good thing. The truth is that the ones with the best chance for election were being backed by paramilitary families in an attempt to keep seats lost by jailed parapoliticians. The other big problem in Colombia its enormous drug trade and the negative effect it has on the economy. Columbia is the world’s largest cocaine producer and accounts for 43% of coca cultivation (the crop used to make cocaine). 0% of the cocaine found in the United States is Colombian. Combined, Colombian and Mexican drug cartels make an estimated $4. 6 billion exporting to the United States per year. Overall Columbia’s drug trade is about $10 billion / year which is equivalent to 25% of the countries legal exports. In 2008 81,000 hectares of land were being used for illegal coca cultivation. These are staggering numbers and makes you wonder, how is all of this being allowed to happen? If Colombia was not as corrupt as it is, this wouldn’t happen. Many of the drug lords use their influence and resources to pay off politicians, police, and military to turn a blind eye to their drug trade. Attempts have been made to stop this massive drug trafficking but so far it has only slowed it down. Colombia’s defense spending is now at $12 billion per year which is triple the average defense budget of other South American countries. Along with an increased defense budget, the United States has also committed an additional $6 billion since 2001 to help crackdown on the coca production. These are large sums of money that could be spent in other more productive ways. Such as, creating a better national infrastructure and creating jobs. $18 billion is a lot of money to invest in an economy, and currently they are losing all of that potential production because drugs are such a big problem. Drug trafficking and election corruption are both hurting the Colombian economy. Billions of dollars are being spent to stop the corruption but to this point there is still a great deal going on. In order for Colombia to have better production in a global economy, they must prove to the world they have a stable government, and reduce the risks associated with investing in them. Over the past few years, foreign direct investment in Colombia has been gradually increasing as their country has been fighting the corruption and violence that had been prominent. Some of the most advantageous areas for FDI are technology, fuels – such as coal, oil and natural gas — and infrastructure. One reason that fuel is a wise choice for FDI is because Colombia has much more oil than is being used by its population: This excess would allow foreign companies access to enough oil to run more plants at a cheaper cost. Infrastructure is also important because Colombia’s current ease of transportation leaves much to be desired. If a company decided to invest in Colombia’s transportation, it would draw more investors in as said transportation costs decreased. The Colombian government has been actively working to encourage local companies to develop the roadway systems across the country to attempt to make Colombia more attractive to foreign investors. While several countries are investing in Colombia, the United States is the lead investor by over 30%. It is certainly beneficial to have a strong investor, however it can be problematic for one country to control so much of Colombia’s foreign direct investment. Having investments in Colombia is helpful for the United States because Colombia is a relatively close population of cheap labor without many of the highly-regulated working conditions that are found in more developed, less corrupt countries. As a surprisingly strong investor, Anguilla contributes 20% of Colombia’s foreign direct investment. For a country whose economy is largely based on tourism, it is interesting to see their commitment to a local country that has very little tourism because of its reputation for violence, drugs and corruption. Foreign direct investment has been increasing in the recent years due to Colombia’s higher regulation of corruption and desire to control the violence in the streets. Many businesses are beginning to trust Colombia to protect their product rights and property, although Colombia is still far from stable and dependable. While crime rates are slowly decreasing in Colombia, most businesses still avoid investing in Colombia because of its reputation for extensive riots and drug wars. If Colombia can decrease their reputation for instability and corruption, they have every opportunity to successfully draw in investment and provide a safer, better future for their citizens. As stated throughout this extensive research paper, corruption can cause a country many problems. One aspect that it affects the most is trade. Countries and corporations are less attracted to corrupt governments opposed to more stable governments. According to Mauro, who analyzed 94 corrupt countries, GDP increased by four percent with a decrease of 2. 38 on his teen point scale; GDP per capita increased by . percent. Mauro contributed to the book, The State in a Changing World, World Development Report 1997. Columbia has had corruption problems for an extended period of time now. Parts of the government have tried to stop such corruption but cooperation from all parts is needed to progress. In order for Columbia to progress they must start at the root. They must analyze what causes corruption and approaches other countries took to successfully start eliminating corruption. A few of the reasons corruption is practiced are to avoid penalties for illegal actions or to get around legal regulations. One overwhelming problem in Columbia, that is no secret to most, is drug trade. Drug cultivating and trade in Columbia is evident due to its geological location and ideal climate. In order to transport these drugs and have farms some drug lords may need to pay off government officials so they can â€Å"turn their eyes† on such activities. In this case both the drug lords and government officials benefit. Corruption will be hard to fight in Columbia due to the fact that the drug industry is estimated to be valued in the billions and whenever there is such a significant amount of money on the line, people are willing to do anything. Regardless of the reason, usually it is for an individual’s personal gain, companies included. Institutional corruption usually arises when government officials have a significant amount of power but little accountability. Most of the time, the officials must have their own financial incentives in order to partake in the corruption. The more control government officials have to regulate corporations the more corruption is likely to occur. If the probability of being caught or punished is low, people will tend to risk dealing with corruption. There are two approaches that must be taken to fight corruption, the first approach must be an institutional approach and the other must be a social approach. To begin an institutional reform towards corruption, Columbia must limit authority. Columbia has a questionable democratic government. With all the corruption going on, the polls could be altered. This is where the social approach comes into play later on. There most prominent branch is the executive branch. This supports the fact that Columbia’s authorities may have too much power. Privatization is believed to be able to reduce corruption by limiting the amount of government interaction with companies. In order to be successful there must be certain regulation put into place. The only problem with this approach is that it has already been taken by Columbia, and while it did improve corruption, it was not notable enough. Columbia has gone as far as privatizing its water supply and while it had many critics at first, it turned out to be a good decision by their part due to the correct regulations put into place. Other suggestions are to increase liberalization by reducing tariffs. This will lead to officials having less access to 1bribes. Competition among public services can also reduce corruption by eliminating monopoly type organizations. By increasing accountability, corruption can be decreased. Accountability includes stricter enforcement and easier detection mechanisms. Accountability can be increased through many ways. Freedom of information legislation can help. To better explain freedom of information legislation, and example would be the Ugandan government began posting prices for services and activities such as registering a car or starting a small business. This eliminates questionable pricing and increases transparency. Another tactic to increase transparency is to implement financial disclosure among government officials. This tactic makes government officials income and assets public. Some South American countries have already began this practice; countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Government expenditures and income can also be made public for transparency purposes. This way money won’t go missing and if it does the people will know; this is known as an open budget process. Legislative oversight can benefit Columbia greatly in terms of eliminating corruption. Since Columbia must give more power to its legislative branch rather than its executive branch. A recent example has been one of Columbia’s neighbors, Brazil. The congressional impeachment of President Fernando Collor de Mello demonstrated the strength of the legislative branch. The Brazilian senate has also set up a special committee to investigate potential fraud in selling government bonds. Columbia’s senate should take initiative and also set up some sort of committee to investigate corruption charges. These methods won’t completely eliminate corruption and none will come close to even making an impact if it’s the only method used but if they are combined corruption and decrease considerably. An incentive to avoid corruption would be stricter sanction. By increasing the severity of the punishments people face a higher risk factor when participating in corrupt actions, thus leading them to think twice about their actions. Sanctions may include but are not limited to minimum sentences for taking part in corrupt activities or denying public services for any entity offering bribes, this includes people or companies. Columbia was already on somewhat of a right track when it comes to strengthening their judicial branch’s power. In 1991 Alfonso Valdivieso was appointed attorney general. In Colombia the Attorney General cannot be dismissed or reappointed and he is given investigatory powers. Valdivieso gained world recognition for prosecuting high ranking drug lords and government officials. I would recommend Columbia to ask Valdivieso for help, knowing that he is a reliable source when it comes to corruption. He can’t be Attorney General again but if special unit is formed to combat corruption, he is definitely a guy that should be taken in mind. This concludes possible ways to avoid and reduce corruption from an institutional view point, reducing corruption from a social approach is rather different. The way people are raised and their surroundings affect their views on many things including corruption. If children are raised in a corrupt environment, they will view it not only acceptable but almost necessary. It’s a top down effect where government officials and corporation leaders are at the top. They must set an example for the public to look down on corruption and not endorse it. Public Relations Campaigns can be put into effect to better inform people on the consequences and harm done by corruption that is not too clear. Campaigns can be executed through mass media, community activities or school programs. A few key points that should be emphasized are the effect that corruption has on things such as public services, investments, and inequality. All of these aspects are affected in a negative way. Columbia’s unemployment rate is 11. 8% and its Gini index is 58. 5. These numbers could improve with by decreasing corruption but this fact isn’t evident to most of the population. If people feel like they have a say in the situation and can make a change, they will be more actively supportive. These campaigns should aim towards making people feel as if every little bit of help counts. In Argentina a non-government organization was formed to inform the public about corruption. The organization consists of television and radio ads. Another positive use of media to combat corruption is investigative journalism. Investigative journalism increase transparency greatly. It helps uncover corrupt officials and acts. The truth is what drives investigative journalism rather than just a story. Investigative journalism poses a threat of being exposed towards anyone that is participating in corrupt acts. It is a risky job due to the fact that people being uncovered may have a lot of power. Workshops should be set up to train such journalist. Countries such as Uganda and Tanzania have just that. In a country like Colombia with all the guerilla forces and drug cartels, this is a very important part to investigative journalism. Journalist run the risk of being targeted, so they must be careful and smart in the ways they go about reporting and accessing their findings. Lastly Columbia could search for outside help. Help can come from individual countries or organizations. Organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank could offer guidelines to help. Both organizations are pretty much powerless but they can help establish treaties that could improve anti-corruption efforts. Individual countries that wish to invest in Columbia could also take initiative and further influence Columbian anti-corruption movements. To recap corruption is mostly if not solely negative towards Columbia’s economic development. It makes Columbia look risky to outside investors hoping to make a Federal Direct Investment. Investors prefer stability rather than turmoil. Due to its geological position, Columbia has faced drug problems for a few decades now. In order to transport these drugs and grow them, bribery and corruption is needed. Columbian citizens and officials should notice that corruptions cons outweigh the pros when it comes to the Columbian economy as a whole. Officials must lead by example and the power of the executive branch should be reduced.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Cinderella and Fairy God Mother Essay

Cinderella’s story portrays a perfect example of that GOD is with those with whom no one is. Poor Cinderella grew up without her mother, and then later was raised fatherless in an abusive environment by her wicked stepmother and two stepsisters. Deprived of her possessions, rights, and dignity, she is forced to toil daily in the house her family once owned but although she lost a lot but she never loses hope. Cinderella is shown as a good hearted young lady. She is hard working and does her best to make her dreams true. She is loyal to her friends and her work, she never lets her friends down. She is also good in studies and fulfills all of her duties without negligence which shows that she is responsible. She is smart and sensible. Her character displays her kind nature, she is very obedient she has been emotionally and physically tortured by her step mother and step sisters but still she respects and obeys them and does her best to keep them happy. She is just like a normal high school girl, with large hopes and ambitions. She quietly searches for her prince charming to find peace of heart. She gets her heart broken again and again but yet she never lets herself get broke. She is not evil and avoids being in conflicts at school, even while being bullied she does not react back which shows that she is very decent. She tries to make others happy by putting others ahead of her own self. THE ROLE OF FAIRY GOD MOTHER: Without fairy God Mother cinderella’s story would not have been complete, fairy god mother in the form of her friend helps her through out her journey. She is very good towards cinderella she Supports Cinderella both verbally and practically, shows her the right path through the darkest of times and guides her to meet her unknown friend. Fairy Godmother always appears in the right place at the right time. Fairy God mother is a god’s gift to Cinderella. Cinderellas good character and the role of fairy god mother in her life are the only reasons that in the end she gets what she truly deserves.